{

Learn Git tool in 15 mins Tutorials with examples


git basics with examples

Git Tutorials Basics

Git is an open-source and distributed version control tool to track changes of a code or documents. Nowadays it is popular among open-source codebase. During application development, we have several questions.

How do you track changes of a code based?

How do multiple people work on the same code or module?

How do you maintain several versions of the codebase?

How do you roll back code changes to the previous version if any issue in production?

How do multiple people merge the code?

How is code released to production?

Answers to the above questions are the features of GIT.

In development, Developers write a codebase in their local system. Once everything is ready, the Commit code changes to a remote repository. Then other developers can able to get the latest code changes.

Git Features

  • Opensource It is free to use under GPL license. You can download and install client and server track your code

  • Performance is good. The developer does changes to the local environment. No need for the internet to work. when you are done with local changes, You will commit changes to the remote repository.

  • Distributed tool Multiple teams can work on the same code base.

There are three repositories.

the repository is a set of files and directories and the history of each file.

  • Remote repository It is a code on a central repository or server where multiple users can work by cloning into the local repository.

Remote Repository hosts on a server that can be accessed by multiple teams across the intranet.

  • Local repository: It is code on your local system which cloned from a remote repository. Each user has a copy of the codebase.

user work on local changes for his work.

  • Staging area: It is a temporary area where the user adds the files to the repository. Files can be of different states like files can be of tracked, untracked, committed, staged types.
git tutorials with examples

Install and Setup

  • on windows

First, download the window installer from here.click on the installer and follow the steps. Once done successfully, You’re able to access the git tool.

  • On Ubuntu/Debian
    Installation is easy using the apt-get package. It will install the latest git command.
apt-get install git  
  • on Linux
    Use the yum command to install the git tool
yum install git  

once git installed on your respective operating system. you can check the installation by using the version below.
To check the Version of a git tool.

C:\>git --version  
git version 2.15.0.windows.1  

One-time Setup
Once git is installed successfully, You need to do some global settings and It is a one-time step. Please do this via the command line as below.

It needs to enable username and email initially

git config --global user.name "Kiran"  
git config --global user.email "code@cloudhadoop.com"  

We will see various examples of the git command.
These are frequently used commands by the developer.

How to initialize an empty repository

It is starting command for new project creation in git.

git init command initializes the git empty directory. It creates the .git folder in the empty directory.

C:\gitcommands>git  init  
Initialized empty Git repository in C:/gitcommands/.git/  

How to add files to the empty repository

It adds files to the staging area/working tree. It is a temporary area for keeping files before committing changes to the remote repository.

git add {list of files or directory by space}  

How to Commit files in a git repository?

Once files are added, you need to use this command to commit changes to the local repository. Provides user message with -m option

git commit -m "Message"  

get repository status

Using the git status command, You can get each of the file statuses, files status are added, Modified etc.

git status  

How to create a branch in the git repository?

The branch is a separate repository for the main repository which multiple teams work on.

git branch branchname // Create new branch  
git branch -a  list of all branches  
git branch -d delete branch  

How to clone a git repository?

the git clone is used to get the copy of the remote repository into your local repository. It is just a copy of your remote repository application.

git clone {gitrepourl} {folder}  

gitrepourl is the git repository URL. the folder is optional and takes the repository name as a folder if the folder is not provided.

git configuration list example

To find a list of available configurations.

C:\gitcommands>git config --list  
core.symlinks=false  
core.autocrlf=true  
core.fscache=true  
color.diff=auto  
color.status=auto  
color.branch=auto  
color.interactive=true  
help.format=html  
http.sslcainfo=C:/Program Files (x86)/Git/mingw32/ssl/certs/ca-bundle.crt  
diff.astextplain.textconv=astextplain  
rebase.autosquash=true  
http.sslcainfo=C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/ssl/certs/ca-bundle.crt  
http.sslbackend=openssl  
diff.astextplain.textconv=astextplain  
credential.helper=manager  
user.email=abc@abc.com  
core.repositoryformatversion=0  
core.filemode=false  
core.bare=false  
core.logallrefupdates=true  
core.symlinks=false  
core.ignorecase=true  

How to get global settings

 git config --global --list

git Commit history log

Every commit task you do in local will record changes .git folder. You can see history using the below command.

git log  

gitignore file

In your project, It is good practice to have the .gitignore file.

In code, the code compiles and generates temporary folders like a target in the maven java project, dist folder for javascript applications.

These folders are not required to commit to the repository. In that case, Please add this folder to a .gitignore file. These folder changes will not be committed as well as not shown with the git status command. Each line in this file represents a folder or file path to an application.

  
cat .gitignore  
/target/*  

How to checkout branch in git?

git checkout is used to work with multiple branches for the same repository. Multiple branches are used by multiple developers for the same repository.

git checkout revisionid - check the changes of commit id  
git checkout branchname - checkout existing branch  
git checkout -b branchanem - Create and checkout new branch  

git remote origin

git remote command is used to connect between remote repository with the local repository for names reflecting. origin is the name of the original branch

git remote add origin {remote-name} {git-url}  
B:\Workspace\angularspree>git remote -v  
origin  https://github.com/aviabird/angularspree.git (fetch)  
origin  https://github.com/aviabird/angularspree.git (push)  

How to pull the latest changes in the git repository?

git pull is used to get the latest changes of a remote repository. Once this command is fired. It gets the content from the remote repository to the local repository.

git pull branchname remote-url  
git pull origin master  

How to push local files to the remote repository?

It is the reverse of the git pull command command. git push command pushes changes from the local to the remote repository. It is the final step once you add/commit changes.

git push origin master  

Conclusion

To summarize, You learned the basics of git tool installation and learned frequently used commands.

THE BEST NEWSLETTER ANYWHERE
Join 6,000 subscribers and get a daily digest of full stack tutorials delivered to your inbox directly.No spam ever. Unsubscribe any time.

Similar Posts
Subscribe
You'll get a notification every time a post gets published here.