Monday, November 12, 2018

Learn Golang Tutorials - Data types Basic Guide with examples

In this blog post series, We are going to learn basic inbuilt predefined data types in golang tutorials with examples.
Learn Golang Tutorials - Data types Basic Guide

Go language data types

Go is a modern opensource programming language from Google.
It is a static type language which means type checking will be done at compile time. Variable can be declared a type or inferred from type inference.
datatypes in golang define the same type of data that can be used to allocates memory size for storing the particular value.

It has several built-in types similar to any programming language.

There are several data types that can be categories based on similar data types
  • Numeric types - This represents numeric numbers which can be divided into Integers, Floating and other types
  • String types - This represents a group of characters
  • Boolean types - It represents boolean values - true or false
  • Custom Data types - It Contains different types like pointers, Array, Struct, Union, Map, and Channel types

Integer data types

These are used to store the positive and negative numbers including zero. It has various types based on size and signed types.

Signed Integer types

signed integer allows the values positives and negatives including zero. it also has int data type which changes based on machine environment
Inbuilt Type Size in bytes Range of values
int8 1 Byte -128 to 127
int16 2 Bytes -32768 to 32767
int32 4 Bytes -2147483648 to 2147483647
int64 8 Bytes -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807

Unsigned Integer types 

Unsigned integer allows the values positive values including zero. It does not allow negative values
Inbuilt Type Size in bytes Range of values
uint8 1 Byte 0 to 255
uint16 2 Bytes 0 to 65535
uint32 4 Bytes 0 to 4294967295
uint64 8 Bytes 0 to 18446744073709551615
Other Numeric types 
There are other numeric types byte etc..


Inbuilt Type Size in bytes Range of values
byte 1 Byte same as uint8
rune 2 Bytes int32
uint 4 Bytes or 8 bytes based on Environment
int 4 Bytes or 8 bytes/td>Based on Environment
uintptr 4 Bytes or 8 bytes/td>unsigned int to store pointer bits

Example

This example covers the following things
  • Type inference example
  • The octal number always prefixed with 0
  • Hexadecimal number prefixed with 0x
This has no char data type in java language. byte and rune are used to represent char types. a byte represents characters in ASCII values. rune represents in UNICODE character in the UTF-8 format
package main
import "fmt"
func main() {
 var int16Variable int16 = 12
 var intVariable = 85 // Type inference example
 var uintVariable uint = 40
 var hexVariable = 0xBC  
 var octalVariable = 013 
 fmt.Printf("%d, %d, %d, %#x, %#o\n", int16Variable, intVariable, uintVariable, hexVariable, octalVariable)
 var byteVariable byte = 'C'
 var runeVariable rune = 'a'
 fmt.Printf("%c - %d and %c - %U\n", byteVariable, byteVariable, runeVariable, runeVariable)

}
The output of the above program is
12, 85, 40, 0xbc, 013
C - 67 and a - U+0061

Floating numeric types 

Like any programming language, These are used to represents numbers with decimal values(3.21) for example, when you declared float value like this, compiler infer the type as float64. The default type is float64
var floatVariable = 47895.587
And also complex data type default type is complex128. type inference applied on complex number also complex128
var complexVariable = 1 + 6i  
Type Size in bytes Description
float32 4 Bytes IEEE-754 Floating numeric values
float64 8 Bytes IEEE-754 Floating numeric values
complex64 8 bytes Complex numbers with float32 real and imaginary parts
complex128 4 Bytes or 8 bytes/td>Complex numbers with float64 real and imaginary parts

Boolean Datatypes 

Go language has data type bool to store boolean values. It has predefined values true or false

var boolVariable = true
var booleVariable1 bool = false

String Datatype 

The string is a group of characters. Characters in golang treated as bytes. The string can be declared using double quotes or backticks. Double quotes enclosed strings cannot be multiple lines but contains newline characters \n. Backticks enclosed string can contain multiple lines
var str1 = "Cloud Hadoop Blog"

var str2 = `This is programming blog for 
   full stack technolgies`
 

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