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Typescript Interfaces - Learn in 15 mins with examples


typescript interfaces multiple Inheritance example

In this Blog Post, learn the Interfaces tutorials in typescript. You can also check Typescript final keyword

It is one of the concepts of Object-Oriented Programming. Other concepts are

Typescript Interface Basic tutorial

Interfaces in the typescript are the same as in another programming language like java.

It doesn’t provide any implementation and only provides abstract methods with no implementation. It is a contract/rule for the class that implements the interfaces.

When the interface is compiled to javascript, There is no code generated. which means, there is no interpretation of runtime code.

It provides compile-time for type safety. The reason is code not generated in javascript is there is no type checking.

Interfaces allow developers to extend the code to extend to write their implementation. And also, contains properties, member variables, and functions or method definitions.

How to declare an interface in Typescript?

Interfaces can be created using the interface keyword and it contains member variables and method headers surrounded by braces.

Here is a syntax for interface declaration

interface interfacename{  
//member variables  
//methods without implementation  
}  

Here is an Interface example

interface IEmployee {
    userId: number;
    username: string;
    roleName: string;
    getRoleName: (string) => string; // arrow function
    getUsername(number): string; 
}

Typescript Typesafety example

What type of safety works in typescript?

Type checking is one of the advantages over javascript. It is simple code for testing type checking.

Created interface which has member variable only, the name is a string type. Created a class that implements this interface by providing a constructor with the public of the interface variable.

Let’s see an example of how type safety works in typescript.

interface IEmployee {   
    name: string;  
}  
class Employee implements IEmployee {   
    constructor(public name: string) {   
    }  
}  
let validEmp: Employee = new Employee("frank"); // valid Object  
let invalidEmp: Employee = new Employee('kiran','abc'); // invalid Object  
let invalidEmp1: Employee = new Employee(1); // invalid Object  

validEmp is a valid class object that implements the interface and is initialized with a string parameter.

invalidEmp throws a compile-time error- Expected 1 argument, but got 2. constructor accepts only one string, but we are passing two strings.

invalidEmp1 - throws compile-time error - Argument of type ‘1’ is not assignable to a parameter of type ‘string’. The reason is creating an object with numeric whereas it accepts values of type string only.

The advantage for developers with type safety is avoiding issues with types at runtime.
Please see the below screenshot of how code generates in typescript.

typescript interface example with tutorials

How to declare different member variables types in typescript?

In this below section, we will see various use cases for declaring different variable types.

Interface Optional Types example

Sometimes, when the interface is passing to function, the caller of the function will not send all the required parameters. Optional member variables are declared with a question mark(?) at end of the variable.

IShape interface has two optional parameters and another function has an interface parameter.

Calling the function with interface contains works either with zero parameters, one parameter, or two parameters.

interface IShape {   
    length?: number;  
    width?: number;  
}  
function createShape(shape: IShape): any{  
}  
let shape = createShape({ length: 10 }) //valid  
let shape1 = createShape({}) //valid  
let shape2 = createShape({ length: 10,width:20 }) //valid  

Interface Readonly Types example

This is one more way of declaring an interface definition to give more flexibility to developers.

Readonly keyword is used with a member variable and declared before the variable.

the member variable is initialized during object creation.

Once values are assigned, variables will not be modified at any cost.

Once values are assigned, if the value is assigned to legs property, It compiles, whereas assigning to ears will not compile as this is a readonly property

interface Animal {   
     readonly ears: number;  
    legs: number;  
}  
let animal: Animal = { ears: 2, legs: 4 }  
animal.ears = 1;// this will not compiles  
animal.legs = 4; // this compiles fine  

Function interface Example

Functions types can be declared with interfaces.

This is like Function header + arguments+ type.

The calling Function should have the same number of arguments with the name might be different, the type should be the same and the return type should be the same Declaration and calling the function.

interface Vehicle {  
    (name: string,  
    wheels:number): string;  
}  
  
let car: Vehicle;  
car = function(n: string, w: number) {  
    return n;  
}  

You can omit function types string, number as typescript can type infer based on the values passed.

Index types signature in interface Example

We can also declare interface parameters with index types.

when do we use index types ?. Simple, if the interface contains a lot of member variables of the same type, we will use this.

This is a kind of array declaration in interfaces.

number array has an index signature, with a numeric index that starts from zero.

Index signature only applicable to string and number datatypes

  
interface numberArray {  
    [index: number]: number;  
}  
let arr: numberArray;  
arr = [11,5,8];  
console.log(arr[0]); // returns 11  

Interfaces inheritance examples

Inheritance is one of the important concepts in object-oriented programming.

It allows to extend the common things and enables reuse mechanism.

Inheritance can be achieved using implements and extends keywords.

Using extend example

- inheritance example This is single inheritance as a superclass only extended by one class

interface Animal {   
   legs:number   
}   
interface Lion extends Animal {   
   eat:string   
}   
var lion = {};   
lion.legs = 4   
lion.eat = "nonveg"   
console.log('Number of legs='+ lion.legs+' Eat type= '+lion.eat);  

Javascript generated code

var lion = {};  
lion.legs = 4;  
lion.eat = "nonveg";  
console.log('Number of legs=' + lion.legs + ' Eat type= ' + lion.eat);  

the output of the above code is

Number of legs=4 Eat type= nonveg  

Multiple inheritances are directly not possible, But you can achieve them using implements or indirect inheritance as below

superclass1-->superclass2-->childobject  

Using implements interface example

with the implements keyword, you can implement multiple interfaces.

Please see the below example. This example created two interfaces. created class by implementing two interfaces. You can achieve multiple inheritances like this

interface ISuper1{  
    method1():void  
}  
interface ISuper2{  
    method2():void  
}  
class Child implements ISuper1, ISuper2 {  
    method1(){  
        console.log('Method 1');  
    }  
    method2(){  
        console.log('Method 2');  
    }  
}   
var child = new Child();  
child.method1();  
child.method2();  

interface in typescript advantages

There are many advantages to interfaces

  • Provides type safety with type checking
  • Supports Multiple inheritances
  • Loose coupling between objects
  • achieve Abstraction

Relation between interface and classes

For example, Define an interface for DownloadData.

interface DownloadData{  
download():void;  
}  

Provides a class for downloading XML and json

class DownloadXml implements DownloadData {  
    download(){  
        console.log('download xml data');  
    }  
   
}   

class DownloadJson implements DownloadData {  
    download(){  
        console.log('download JSOn data');  
    }  
   
}   

The class implements an interface and has to provide an implementation for a method.

Conclusion

To Summarize, Learned complete interface tutorials with examples.

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