Learn ES7 features | Es2016 javascript tutorials

In this blog post, I will cover Es7 features tutorials with examples.

ECMAScript 2016 or ES2016 or Es7 introduction

Javascript is a popular scripting language for building software applications. ES7 is also called ECMAScript 2016 or ES2016.

Every release to javascript introduced many features. The previous version - ES6(ECMAScript 2015) released a lot of features including language and API changes. Es7 or ECMAScript 2016 is a minor release that contains only two features.

  • Array.prototype.includes
  • Exponentiation Operator You can also check Es6/Es2015 features.

Array.prototype.includes() method

Es7 introduced includes in the array object. includes() method check an element/object exists in an array of elements/objects.

if exists, returns true, else returns false.

includes() method is an replacement of indexOf() method of prior to es7 code.


Array.prototype.includes(element) :boolean

Parameters are an element

  • Element to search in an array

  • Return value - returns the Boolean value true - element contains in Array.

    Includes checks element using the sameValueZero algorithm🔗 to find an element Includes checks element using the sameValueZero algorithm to find an element

var numericArray = [9, 21, 5];
console.log(numericArray.includes(21)); // outputs true
console.log(numericArray.includes(2)); // outputs false

The Includes method is like of indexOf() method of ES6 or prior versions.

In ES6 or Es5 versions, the - index() method is used to check element that exists in an array using. Following is an example of finding an element that exists in Es6 versions of javascript, using the indexOf() method. The same above code can be rewritten as follows

var numericArray = [9, 21, 5];
console.log(numericArray.indexOf(21)>=0); // outputs true
console.log(numericArray.indexOf(2)>=0); // outputs false

The indexOf() method is used to check the element in an array. It returns the position of a matched element in the array or -1 if the element is not found. The developer has to write a code to check the position to return a boolean value

arr.indexOf(x) >= 0

Both methods treat +0 and -0 in the same

console.log([-0].includes(+0)) // === true)
console.log([+0].includes(-0)) // === true)
console.log([-0].indexOf(+0)>=0) // === true)
console.log([+0].indexOf(-0)>=0) // === true)

Difference between Array.prototype.includes and Array.prototype.IndexOf method

Both have the same purpose for finding an element in an array. includes method checks undefined and NaN elements, Index method does not NaN is at a global object and its value is Not-a-Number. NaN and Undefined are valid values in javascript

Includes and IndexOf:

Returns Boolean value - true or false

Return numeric value >=0 or -1

Handles NaN values correctly. it will be very useful for comparing NaN values

console.log([NaN].includes(NaN))// outputs true

Inconsistency in Nan Value handling

console.log([NaN].indexOf(NaN)) // outputs false

Undefined value checks return true and comparison works as expected

console.log( [, , ].includes(undefined)>=0) // === true)

Undefined checks return false.

console.log([, , , ,].indexOf(undefined) >= 0); // === true)

Includes() makes the developer’s life easy for dealing with element comparison in the array data structure.

Exponentiation Operator in javascript

the name itself says it is an operator dealing with mathematical operations. The exponential operation multiplies the number by exponent times 4 exponential 2 or 4 power 2 is 4* 4=16. In Es6 and prior versions, To do exponential operations, You have to use the Math.pow method.

Es6 and Prior Version Exponentiation operator example

console.log(Math.pow(3, 4)); // 81 console.log( Math.pow(5,2)) // 25

Infix Operator Example

With Es7/Es2016, New operator was introduced to handle the exponential operator Infix operator ** is used for exponential The same syntax can be rewritten using the new es7 syntax.

console.log(3**4)) // 81
console.log( 5**2)) // 25

Exponential operator assignment example

It uses as an assignment expression. Below is a code for the usage of an assignment expression.

let value = 2;
value **= 5;
console.log(value === Math.pow(2, 5)); // true